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Scientific Journal Publications

Date Last Revised: 
April 19, 2018
Date Published: 
May 3, 2011

The Interactive Autism Network's (IAN's) project team has worked with other autism researchers to test a wide range of hypotheses through the use of IAN data and has contributed to the following articles that have been published in peer-reviewed journals. Special thanks goes to all of the IAN Research families who made these discoveries possible.

Anxiety and Mood Disorder in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder and ADHD

Publication date: April 2018

This study analyzed data from IAN Research and found that when children have both ASD and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) diagnoses, there is an increased risk of also having mood disorders including anxiety.

To learn more, you can access the article posted online for free on the website of the AAP News and Journals Gateway. (Open access)

Analysis of Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ) Screening for Children Less Than Age 4

Publication date: November 2017 (Online)

This study reviewed the scientific literature involving the Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ) that looked at the questionnaire's ability to assess (psychometric properties) ASD in children younger than 4. The study reported that the Lifetime version should be used for this age group.

To learn more, you can access the article posted online for free on the website of the National Library of Medicine. (Open access)

The Individuals With Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) for children with special educational needs

Publication date: December 2015

The experience, contributions, and resilience of grandparents of children with autism spectrum disorder

Publication date: June 2016

This study asked 1,820 grandparents of children with autism about the impact of having a grandchild with autism. The study found that grandparents provide a significant amount of care and make substantial financial contributions to help their grandchildren. In addition, 25% percent of the grandparents in the study moved or combined households to support their grandchildren. The study also looked at how well the grandparents were coping, and found that the majority were coping fairly or very well. However, 12% were not.

To learn more, you can access the article posted online on the website of the Journal of Intergenerational Relationships (for journal subscribers).

The Individuals With Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) for children with special educational needs

Publication date: December 2015

This special report by the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) says pediatric health care providers play a critical role in helping children with disabilities obtain appropriate special education and related services from their schools. It provides a primer on key aspects of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, which entitles children with disabilities in the United States to a free, appropriate public education from birth to age 21. Doctors can provide parents and schools with information to ensure that those children get their educational needs met, according to the article published in Pediatrics. The report also explains two other laws that affect students with disabilities, the Americans with Disabilities Act and Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act.

View the report.

A genetic multimutation model of autism spectrum disorder fits disparate twin concordance data from the USA and Canada

Publication date: 2015

This study looked at data on 320 twin sets (both fraternal/dizygotic and monozygotic/identical) in the Interactive Autism Network (IAN) to determine whether there would be an increase in concordance (both twins diagnosed with autism) if diagnoses were examined when the twins were older.Fifty percent of the identical twin pairs become concordant at the age of 42 months. This rate increased to ninety-six percent by the age of 123 months (10.25 years).

Characterizing the daily life, needs, and priorities of adults with autism spectrum disorder from Interactive Autism Network data

Publication date: May 2015

This study looked at online survey data from a large sample of adults with ASD in the Interactive Autism Network. The sample included 255 self-reporting adults with ASD diagnoses aged 18–71 years and 143 adults with autism spectrum disorder aged 18–58 years whose information was provided by a legal guardian. Although the self-reporting subsample had much higher rates of employment, marriage/partnership, and independent living than are typically seen in autism spectrum disorder outcome studies, they remained underemployed and had strikingly high rates of comorbid disorders. The participants' research priorities included more adult research on life skills, treatments, co-occurring conditions, and vocational and educational opportunities. Stakeholders also placed priority on improving public services, health care access, and above all, public acceptance of adults with autism spectrum disorder.

To learn more, view the article.

Health care transition services for youth with autism spectrum disorders

Publication date: August 2014

This study used the information provided by 101 parents and guardians who completed the Access to Care Survey that was administered on IAN Research. The researchers looked at whether parents and their teens with autism were receiving help with the transition from pediatric to adult medical services. The researchers found that only one-quarter of the families had conversations with their health care providers about the transition and associated insurance and health care needs.

To learn more, you may view the study's abstract.

A twin study of heritable and shared environmental contributions to autism

Publication date: August 2014

This study of 568 pairs of identical and fraternal twins in the IAN database found that "extreme" autism systems are largely inherited, while a shared environment plays no significant role. The study also concluded that problems in two separate areas, social communication skills and repetitive behaviors, are driven by the same gene or genes. To learn more, you may access:

Internet-Based, Randomized, Controlled Trial of Omega-3 Fatty Acids for Hyperactivity in Autism

Publication Date: June 2014

This study had two purposes. First, we wanted to find out whether it was possible to test the efficacy of low-risk therapies via the internet in order to reduce the time and cost of future studies. Second, we wanted to test whether Omega-3 fatty acids could reduce hyperactivity in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We found that running randomized, controlled trials on low-risk therapies was feasibile. Though the experimental group (the group of participants who received the Omega-3 fatty acids) showed a greater reduction in hyperactivity compared to the placebo group (the group that took a gel containing safflower oil instead of Omega-3 fatty acids), the difference between the two groups was not large enough (not statistically significant) to draw any conclusions. Further studies need to be done with a larger number of participants in order to determine if omega-3 fatty acids reduce hyperactivity in children with ASD.

To learn more, you can access:

The Association Between Child Autism Symptomatology, Maternal Quality of Life, and Risk for Depression

Publication Date: June 2014

An IAN survey of more than 1,000 mothers of children with autism spectrum disorder found that a greater number of autism symptoms and co-occurring psychiatric conditions in their child indicated an increased risk for depression and lower quality of life in the mothers. The results show the significance of screening mothers of children with ASD for depression.

To learn more, you can access:

  • The article posted online on the website of Journal of Developmental and Developmental Disorders (for journal subscribers)
  • An abstract of the article

Risk Factors for Bullying among Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

Publication Date: May 2014

Using data from 1221 parents who completed the Interactive Autism Network's Bullying and Children with ASD Survey, the researchers investigated the factors that predict bullying involvement in children with autism spectrum disorders. Children diagnosed with Asperger’s disorder, attending a public school or a school with a general education population, were at the greatest risk of being victimized in the past month. Children with comorbid conditions and a high level of autistic traits were the most likely to be victims, bullies, and bully–victims. Finally, children in full inclusion classrooms were more likely to be victimized than those who spend the majority of their time in special education settings.

To learn more, you can access:

Confirmatory Factor Analytic Structure and Measurement Invariance of Quantitative Autistic Traits Measured by the Social Responsiveness Scale-2

Publication Date: September 2013

Using data obtained from the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS-2), a standardized instrument designed to measure autistic behavioral traits, the authors used statistical methods to determine if the traits measured on the SRS-2 clustered in ways that might help in the understanding of the structure of autistic symptoms. They concluded that there is strong evidence of "separable, but highly correlated, autistic traits corresponding to the DSM-5 criteria domains for ASD and specific factors encompassed by those respective domains."

To learn more, you can access:

The Relationship Between the Medical Home and Unmet Needs for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

Publication Date: June 2013

This study was administered to families participating in the Interactive Autism Network (IAN). It looked at the relationship between the unmet needs for specialty care that families with children with autism had, and whether the child had a medical home. Families have a medical home when they have "comprehensive, coordinated, and family-centered care in primary care setting." This survey of 371 parent-child pairs found that having a medical home increased the probability of having your specialty care needs met.

To learn more, you can access:

  • The article posted online on the website of the Maternal and Child Health Journal (for journal subscribers)
  • An abstract of the article

Autism Recurrence in Half Siblings: Strong Support for Genetic Mechanisms of Transmission in ASD

Publication Date: February 2013

This article looked at data from 5237 IAN families with at least one child and one sibling, including 619 half siblings to study the extent to which autism is inherited.

To learn more, you can access:

  • The article posted online on the website of the Molecular Psychiatry Journal (for journal subscribers)

The Association Between Bullying and the Psychological Functioning of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

Publication Date: January 10, 2013

Nearly 70 percent of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) experience emotional trauma as a result of being bullied, while a significant portion were concerned for their own safety at school. The study also found that children with ASD who presented with pre-existing psychiatric diagnoses were at increased risk for involvement in bullying, with children diagnosed with ASD and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or depression at highest risk of being victimized over a one month period. This study was conducted using data from the Interactive Autism Network (IAN).

To learn more, you can access:

  • The article posted online on the website of Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics (for journal subscribers)
  • An abstract of the article

Occurrence and Family Impact of Elopement in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD)

Publication Date: October 8, 2012

An IAN survey of more than 1,200 families with children between the ages of 4 and 17 found that 49 percent of parents reported that their child with ASD had attempted to elope at least once after four years of age. In this study, elopement is defined as a dependent person exposing him or herself to potential danger by leaving a supervised, safe space or the care of a responsible person. The study also found that the risk for elopement increased with the severity of autism. Nearly half of the parents said that their child eloped with the intention to go somewhere or do something while only a tenth reported that their child eloped because he/she was confused, sad and lost.

To learn more, you can access:

Mood Disorders in Mothers of Children on the Autism Spectrum Are Associated with Higher Functioning Autism

Publication Date: August 15, 2012

This research study used a sample of 998 mother-child pairs from the IAN Research database. The researchers found that mothers with bipolar disorder or depression were more likely to have a child with Asperger's than autism, with that outcome likely if the mother had the first onset of the mood disorder before having children. These findings confirm other reserach studies that found a higher proportion of bipolar disorder among first- and second-degree relatives of participants with a family history of Asperger's, and a strong link between depression in mothers and high-functioning ASD.

To learn more, you can access:

  • The article posted online on the website of Autism Research and Treatment (Free Access)
  • An abstract of the article

Involvement in Bullying Among Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Parents' Perspectives on the Influence of School Factors

Publication Date: May 2012

The IAN research study that surveyed over 1,200 children with ASD between the ages of six and 15 found that 63 percent of them had been bullied at some point in their lives. The study also found that children who had been bullied in the past month were also more likely to be perpetrators. A related finding was that parents who were more actively involved in their child's school were more likely to have a positive view of the school climate than parents who were less involved in their child's school.

To learn more, you can access the preliminary findings from IAN's research study online. The abstract is available in print only.

Survey Non-response in an Internet-Mediated, Longitudinal Autism Research Study

Publication Date: April 2012

In this article, the authors looked at the ongoing participation of parents of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in the Interactive Autism Network's research project (IAN Research) to determine how they respond to surveys over time. The authors looked at 31,216 survey instances and found that 28.1% of those surveys had been completed or partially completed. They found that the most important factor in determining whether parents responded to follow-up surveys was their level of participation at the beginning of their IAN experience. Parents who didn't complete at least one survey when their participation began were unlikely to participate in follow-up studies. Another important factor was the amount of time people were in the study. That is, the longer people were in the study, the less likely they were to respond to follow-up surveys. The authors also found that parents in single households, parents with older children, and younger mothers were less likely to participate in follow-up surveys than their counterparts.

To learn more, you can access:

  • The article posted online on the website of Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association (for journal subscribers)
  • An abstract of the article

Survey of Vaccine Beliefs and Practices Among Families Affected by Autism Spectrum Disorders

Publication Date: March 2, 2012

This IAN survey of 486 families is the first quantitiative study of the parent-reported practice of vaccinating younger siblings of at least one ASD-affected child. The study found that parents were likely to delay or omit some vaccines for these children due to a belief in a vaccine-autism link, putting them at risk for incomplete vaccine coverage. Researchers also found that mothers educated at the postgraduate level were less likely to believe in the vaccine-autism link but were still more likely to delay or omit vaccinating the younger sibling of a child with ASD. Another finding was that households with lower socioeconomic status may be less willing to question or act on their beliefs.

To learn more, you can access the article posted online on the website of Clinical Pediatrics (Free acess)

Validation of Proposed DSM-5 Criteria for Autism Spectrum Disorder

Publication Date: January 2012

In this article, the authors analyzed information about the symptoms of 14,744 siblings (8,911 ASD and 5,863 non-ASD) included in the Interactive Autism Network (IAN) as reported by the childrens' parents and guardians on two standardized assessments. They found that the newly proposed DSM-5 criteria for diagnosing autism spectrum disorder (ASD) were better able to identify people who have ASD than the older DSM-IV criteria. This means that clinicians using the proposed criteria will make fewer incorrect diagnoses. However, the authors also found that the new definition will miss some people who actually have autism. The authors recommend that this problem could be corrected by decreasing the number of symptoms required to receive a diagnosis.

To learn more, you can access:

  • The article posted online on the website of Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry (for journal subscribers)
  • An abstract of the article

Parent Report of Community Psychiatric Comorbid Diagnoses in Autism Spectrum Disorders

Publication Date: August 2011

In Parent Report of Community Psychiatric Comorbid Diagnoses in Autism Spectrum Disorders (Rosenberg, Kaufman, Law, & Law, 2011), the authors looked at 4,343 children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) who participated in the IAN Research study to learn about the effect of individual, family, and geographic factors on the total number of parent-reported anxiety disorder, depression, bipolar disorder, and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder or attention deficit disorder in the study population. The researchers found that the prevalence of these conditions (referred to as psychiatric comorbidities) was related to gender, autistic regression, autism severity, and type of ASD. Importantly, those with autistic regression reported less psychiatric comorbidity than those without and that Hispanic ethnicity was associated with lower lifetime community psychiatric diagnosis.

To learn more, you can access:

  • The article posted online on the website of Autism Research and Treatment (free access)
  • An abstract of the article

Factors Affecting Age at Initial Autism Spectrum Disorder Diagnosis in a National Survey

Publication Date: July 2011

Among the key factors in children receiving critical early intervention services for autism spectrum disorders are 1) the age of the child when parents first become concerned about their son's or daughter's development and 2) the age at which the child is diagnosed. In Factors Affecting Age at Initial Autism Spectrum Disorder Diagnosis in a National Survey (Rosenberg, Landa, Law, Stuart, & Law, 2011), researchers used IAN Research data from thousands of families living with ASD to analyze elements that could be associated with the age at which parents start to feel concerned and the age when a child is actually diagnosed. Determining which elements influence an early diagnosis may lead to earlier intervention, which can lower not only the cost of future special-education services but also lifetime financial and emotional costs as improved functioning allows for more independence and productivity for future adults with ASD.

To learn more, you can access:

  • The article posted online on the website of Autism Research and Treatment (free access)
  • An abstract of the article

Verification of Parent-Report of Child Autism Spectrum Disorder Diagnosis to a Web-Based Autism Registry

Publication Date: April 2011

Verification of Parent-Report of Child Autism Spectrum Disorder Diagnosis to a Web-Based Autism Registry (Daniels, Rosenberg, Anderson, et al., 2011) showed that information collected online by the Interactive Autism Network provides a valuable resource for ASD researchers. Studies with a large number of participants are needed to help researchers learn more about the prevalence, causes, and trends in the diagnosis and treatment of ASD. Internet research can greatly increase participation in studies by including individuals who might not have the time or resources to participate in a study in person. But can data collected on the Internet be trusted? This study looked at whether childhood ASD diagnoses reported to IAN Research, a national online ASD registry, could be confirmed. Of those who agreed to participate in this study, ASD diagnosis was verified in 98% of the cases. This high percentage illustrates that researchers can use IAN Research data and recruit participating families for ASD research with confidence.

To learn more, you can access:

  • The article posted online on the website of the Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders (for journal subscribers)
  • An abstract of the article in PubMed

Stability of Initial Autism Spectrum Disorder Diagnoses in Community Settings

Publication Date: January 2011

Once an individual is diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder, what are the odds that the diagnosis will be the same at a later time? ASD diagnoses are generally consistent in research settings, but this study, Stability of Initial Autism Spectrum Disorder Diagnoses in Community Settings (Daniels, Rosenberg, Law, et al., 2011), aimed to determine how likely an ASD diagnosis made by a professional in the community was likely to change. How stable would the diagnosis be in the real world with the passage of time? Using IAN data, researchers found that the most severe form of ASD, autistic disorder, was the most stable diagnosis in the autism spectrum; the least stable diagnosis was pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified, a somewhat vague category that may be used as a "placeholder" for individuals with mild or more atypical signs of ASD until more characteristics emerge to allow for a more specific diagnosis.

To learn more, you can access:

  • The article posted online on the website of the Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders (for journal subscribers)
  • An abstract of the article in PubMed

Onset Patterns Prior to 36 Months in Autism Spectrum Disorders

Publication Date: November 2010

Onset Patterns Prior to 36 Months in Autism Spectrum Disorders (Kalb, Law, Landa, & Law, 2010) looked at differences among children with three different patterns in the onset of autism symptoms: a regression in skills; a plateau or halt in development in a child who has been generally meeting developmental milestones with perhaps some mild delay; and no loss of skills and no plateau. Using IAN Research data, the study showed that children in the first group, who experienced a loss of social, communication, and/or motor skills, generally had less delayed early development. Following regression, autistic symptoms became more pronounced. The study also found evidence for an association between severe autistic regression and generally poorer verbal, educational-behavioral, and diagnostic outcomes. Data also suggest that children with a developmental plateau are at increased risk, compared with those without a loss or plateau, for requiring additional educational supports.

To learn more, you can access:

  • A press release about the article on IAN Community
  • The article posted online on the website of the Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders (for journal subscribers)
  • An abstract of the article in PubMed

Sibling Recurrence and the Genetic Epidemiology of Autism

Publication Date: November 2010

This study, Sibling Recurrence and the Genetic Epidemiology of Autism (Constantino, Zhang, Frazier, Abbacchi, & Law, 2010), used data provided by IAN Research families to find out more about the biological siblings of children with autism spectrum disorders. The data showed that these "unaffected" siblings actually had a higher than expected rate of language delay or a history of speech problems, sometimes with autistic features. In addition, the results provided evidence that girls with ASD or ASD-like characteristics may be under-diagnosed compared with boys. The study findings also support the idea that there may be differences in how ASD is genetically passed on in families with one member with ASD versus families with multiple family members with ASD.

To learn more, you can access:

  • An interview with the lead author on IAN Community
  • The article posted online on the website of the The American Journal of Psychiatry (for journal subscribers)
  • An abstract of the article in PubMed

Accuracy of Phenotyping of Autistic Children Based on Internet Implemented Parent Report

Publication Date: September 2010

In Accuracy of Phenotyping of Autistic Children Based on Internet Implemented Parent Report (Lee, et al., 2010), researchers established a high degree of accuracy in ASD diagnosis of verbal children as reported by parents recruited online by IAN Research. This degree of accuracy highlights the potential of using IAN to efficiently and cost-effectively recruit large numbers of individuals and families for DNA studies involving blood or saliva. The contribution of genetics to ASD is complex and likely involves numerous factors, requiring large studies to separate out the various genetics-related patterns in individuals and families. Researchers commented that they view IAN Research's web-based approach as "a powerful community tool" for genetic studies of ASD.

To learn more, you can access:

  • The article posted online on the website of the American Journal of Medical Genetics, Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics (for journal subscribers)
  • An abstract of the article in PubMed

Autism Spectrum Disorders as a Qualitatively Distinct Category From Typical Behavior in a Large, Clinically Ascertained Sample

Publication Date: September 2010

Is autism a separate category with discrete characteristics, or is it along a continuum with "normal" functioning at one end and severe autistic impairment on the other? Autism Spectrum Disorders as a Qualitatively Distinct Category From Typical Behavior in a Large, Clinically Ascertained Sample (Frazier, et al., 2010) attempts to shed light on this issue using IAN Research data. The distinction between looking at ASD as a distinct category versus along a dimension, or continuum, of characteristics running from normal, to mild, to severe affects diagnosis and treatment issues. Treatment of a disorder that is distinct from other, even similar disorders could be significantly different from treatment of a disorder measured as a matter of degree, perhaps calling for essentially the same treatment with varying intensities based on severity of symptoms. Results of this study supported the concept of ASD as a separate category, distinct from typical behavior.

To learn more, you may access:

Psychotropic Medication Use Among Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders Enrolled in a National Registry, 2007-2008

Publication Date: March 2010

Psychotropic Medication Use Among Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders Enrolled in a National Registry, 2007-2008 (Rosenberg, Mandell, et al., 2010) provides an analysis of information from IAN Research about the treatments used by children with ASD. Specifically, it examines the patterns of use of a class of drugs called psychotropics, which are used to treat psychiatric conditions. Overall, the researchers found that 35% of the 5,181 children studied used at least one psychotropic medication, most commonly stimulants, neuroleptics, and/or antidepressants. Those who were uninsured or exclusively privately insured were less likely to use three or more medications than were those insured by Medicaid. Psychiatrists and neurologists prescribed the majority of psychotropic medications.

To learn more, you may access:

Characteristics and Concordance of Autism Spectrum Disorders Among 277 Twin Pairs

Publication Date: October 2009

Because of the large number of IAN Research families, researchers had access to information about the largest number of twins with at least one twin having an ASD ever studied. In the study Characteristics and Concordance of Autism Spectrum Disorders Among 277 Twin Pairs (Rosenberg, Law, et al., 2009), they confirmed the findings of other studies that ASD occurs more often in identical (monozygotic) twins than in fraternal (dizygotic) twins. Researchers also reported on other important differences between the different types of twins. For example, when identical twins were female, 100% of the time, both children had ASD. When identical twins were male, 86% of the time, both children had ASD.

To learn more, you may access:

  • An interview with one of the authors on IAN Community
  • An article about twin studies and IAN twin data on IAN Community
  • The article in the Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine (for journal subscribers)
  • An abstract of the article in PubMed

Trends in Autism Spectrum Disorder Diagnoses: 1994-2007

Publication Date: August 2009

Trends in Autism Spectrum Disorder Diagnoses: 1994-2007 (Rosenberg, Daniels, Law, Law, & Kaufmann, 2009) demonstrates that the type of ASD diagnosis (Asperger's, PDD-NOS, autism, autistic disorder, etc.) that a child is given depends, in part, on the region in which he/she lives, the type of provider who gives the diagnosis, and the year in which the diagnosis was given. This study suggests that while the diagnosis of autistic disorder is consistently applied, current classification is not as consistent for atypical ASD and PDD-NOS. Use of "ASD" for apparently mild autistic disorder is further evidence that the current classification system, including PDD-NOS, is unhelpful for many evaluators. Researchers hope this analysis contributes to the development of ASD classifications in the upcoming Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.) to make it more relevant to providers other than psychiatrists and psychologists -- particularly in light of increasing evaluations by school-based teams.

To learn more, you may access:

  • A podcast about our findings in plain English on IAN Community
  • The article in the Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders (for journal subscribers)
  • An abstract of the article in PubMed

A Unified Genetic Theory for Sporadic and Inherited Autism

Publication Date: July 2007

In A Unified Genetic Theory for Sporadic and Inherited Autism (Zhao, et al., 2007), information about family structures (for example, how many brothers and sisters have an ASD) derived from IAN Research data was used in combination with other ASD datasets to evaluate inheritance patterns in autism. This article describes a new genetic model for understanding how autism is acquired. Unlike previous genetics efforts, which were largely focused on looking for an autism susceptibility gene or genes, the new model sees the underlying cause of autism as the spontaneous, new mutation of a gene. In the majority of cases, according to this theory, individuals acquire autism through a spontaneous mutation affecting genetic material within their parent's sperm or egg cell. In other words, a gene is altered within a single sperm or egg cell at some point during the parent's life. If a child is conceived with that particular sperm or egg, the child may have autism. (The mutation was present in only one sperm or egg cell of the parent, but it will be present in virtually every cell of the resulting child.) Although they account for the majority of autism cases, such mutations are fairly rare, and they are unlikely to happen to the same family twice. This makes sense when you consider that the mutation was in only one sperm or egg cell. You'd have to have another spontaneous autism-causing mutation in another sperm or egg cell to have a second child with autism.

To learn more, you can access:

  • A summary in plain English on IAN Community
  • The article in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (free access)
  • An abstract of the article in PubMed
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References: 
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