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Treatments and Therapies - Vitamins and Supplements - References

  1. Adams, J.B., & Holloway, C. (2004). Pilot study of a moderate dose multivitamin/mineral supplement for children with autistic spectrum disorder.  Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 10(6), 1033-1039.
  2. Green, V.A., Pituch, K.A., Itchon, J. Choi, A., O'Reilly, M., & Sigafoos, J. (2006). Internet survey of treatments used by parents of children with autism. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 27(1), 70-84.
  3. Siva Sankar, D.V. (1979). Plasma levels of folates, riboflavin, vitamin B6, and ascorbate in severely disturbed children.  Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 9(1), 73-82.
  4. Adams, J.B., & Holloway, C. (2004). Pilot study of a moderate dose multivitamin/mineral supplement for children with autistic spectrum disorder.  Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 10(6), 1033-1039.
  5. Levy, S.E., & Hyman, S.L. (2005). Novel treatments for autistic spectrum disorders. Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities, 11, 131-142.
  6. Deshpande, C., Dhir, A., & Kulkarni, S.K. (2006). Antagonistic activity of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) on dopaminergic modulation: Apomorphine-induced stereotypic behavior in mice. Pharmacology, 77(1), 38-45.
  7. McGinnis, W.R. (2004). Oxidative stress in autism. Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine, 10(6), 22-36.
  8. Chauhan, A., & Chauhan, V. (2006). Oxidative stress in autism. Pathophysiology, 13(3), 171-181.
  9. James, S.J., Cutler, P., Melnyk, S., Jernigan, S., Janak, L., Gaylor, D.W., & Neubrander, J.A. (2004). Metabolic biomarkers of increased oxidative stress and impaired methylation capacity in children with autism. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 80, 1611-1617.
  10. Loney, D. (2001). Antioxidants and Free Radicals.  Retrieved March 19, 2007, from the website of the American Chemical Society, http://www.chemistry.org/portal/a/c/s/1/feature_ent.html?id=48b3635ace1411d5f2944fd8fe800100
  11. Zoroglu, S.S., Armutcu, F., Ozen, S., Gurel, A., Sivasli, E., Yetkin, O., & Meram, I. (2004). Increased oxidative stress and altered activities of erythrocyte free radical scavenging enzymes in autism. European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience, 254, 143-147. (pg. 143)
  12. Dolske, M.C., Spollen, J., McKay, S., Lancashire, E., & Tolbert, L.  (1993). A preliminary trial of ascorbic acid as supplemental therapy for autism. Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry, 17, 765-774.
  13. Bonisch, E. (1968). Experiences with pyrithioxin in brain-damaged children with autistic syndrome [Erfahrungen mit Pyrithioxin bei hirngeschadigten Kindern autistichem Syndrom]. Praxis der Kinderpsychologie und Kinderpsychiatrie, 17(8), 308-310.
  14. Rimland, B., Callaway, E., & Dreyfus, P. (1978). The effect of high doses of vitamin B6 on autistic children: a double-blind crossover study. American Journal of Psychiatry, 135(4), 472-475.
  15. Lelord, G., Muh, J.P., Barthelemy, C., Martineau, J., Garreau, B., & Callaway, E. (1981). Effects of pyridoxine and magnesium on autistic symptoms – initial observations. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 11(2), 219-230.
  16. Martineau, J., Barthelemy, C., Garreau, B., & Lelord, G. (1985). Vitamin B6, magnesium, and combined B6-Mg: Therapeutic effects in childhood autism. Biological Psychiatry, 20, 467-478.
  17. Adams, J.B., & Holloway, C. (2004). Pilot study of a moderate dose multivitamin/mineral supplement for children with autistic spectrum disorder.  Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 10(6), 1033-1039.
  18. Adams, J.B., George, F., & Audhya, T. (2006). Abnormally high plasma levels of vitamin B6 in children with autism not taking supplements compared to controls not taking supplements. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 12(1), 59-63.
  19. Tolbert, L., Haigler, T., Waits, M.M., & Dennis, T. (1993). Brief report: lack of response in an autistic population to a low dose clinical trail of pyridoxine plus magnesium. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 23(1), 193-199.
  20. Findling, R.L., Maxwell, K., Scotese-Wojtila, L., Huang, J., Yamashita, T., & Wiznitzer, M.  (1997). High-dose pyridoxine and magnesium administration in children with autistic disorder: an absence of salutary effects in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 27(4), 467-478.
  21. Kuriyama, S., Kamiyama, M., Watanabe, M., Tamahashi, S., Muraguchi, I., Wtanabe T., et al. (2002). Pyridoxine treatment in a subgroup of children with pervasive developmental disorders. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, 44, 283-286.
  22. Nye, C., & Brice, A. (2005). Combined vitamin B6-magnesium treatment in autism spectrum disorder (Review). Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Issue 4. Art. No.:CD003497.  DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD003497.pub2.
  23. Levy, S.E., & Hyman, S.L. (2005). Novel treatments for autistic spectrum disorders. Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities, 11, 131-142. (pg. 137)
  24. Bolman, W.M., & Richmond, J.A. (1999).  A double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover pilot trial of low dose dimethylglycine in patients with autistic disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 29(3), 191-194.
  25. Kern, J.K., Miller, V.S., Cauller, P.L., Kendall, P.R., Mehta, P.J., & Dodd, M. (2001). Effectiveness of N,N-dimethylglycine in autism and pervasive developmental disorder. Journal of Child Neurology, 16(3), 169-173.
  26. Rimland, B. (1990). Dimethylglycine (DMG), a nontoxic metabolite, and autism. Autism Research Review International, 4(2), 3.
  27. Yehuda, S., Rabinovitz, S., & Mostofsky, D.I. (1999). Essential fatty acids are mediators of brain biochemistry and cognitive functions. Journal of Neuroscience Research, 56, 565-570.
  28. Yoshida, S., Sato, A., & Okuyama, H. (1998). Pathophysiological effects of dietary essential fatty acid balance on neural systems. Japanese Journal of Pharmacology, 77, 11-22.
  29. Simopoulos, A.P. (2002). Omega-3 fatty acids in inflammation and autoimmune diseases.  Journal of the American College of Nutrition, 21(6), 495-505.
  30. Cohly, H.H.P., & Panja, A.  (2005). Immunological findings in autism. International Review of Neurobiology, 71, 317-341.
  31. Vargas, D.L., Nascimbene, C., Krishnan, C., Zimmerman, A.W., & Pardo, C.A. (2005). Neuroglial activation and neuroinflammation in the brain of patients with autism.  Annals of Neurology, 57(1), 67-81.
  32. Pardo, C.A., Vargas, D.L., & Zimmerman, A.W. (2005). Immunity, neuroglia and neuroinflammation in autism.  International Review of Psychiatry, 17(6), 485-495.
  33. Sweeten, T.L., Bowyer, S.L., Posey, D.J., Halberstadt, G.M., & McDougle, C.J. (2003). Increased prevalence of familial autoimmunity in probands with pervasive developmental disorders. Pediatrics, 112(5), e420-e424.
  34. Kris-Ehterton, P.M., Taylor, D.S., Yu-Poth, S., Huth, P., Moriarty, K., Fishell, V., Hargrove, R.L., Zhao, G., & Etherton, T.D. (2000). Polyunsaturated fatty acids in the food chain in the United States. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 71(1), 179S-188S.
  35. Simopoulos, A.P. (2002). The importance of the ratio of omega-6/omega-3 essential fatty acids. Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy, 56(8), 365-379
  36. Hibbeln, J.R., Ferguson, T.A., & Blasbalg, T.L. (2006). Omega-3 fatty acid deficiencies in neurodevelopment, aggression, and autonomic dysregulation: Opportunities for intervention.  International Review of Psychiatry, 18(2), 107-118.
  37. Garland, M.R., & Hallahan, B. (2006). Essential fatty acids and their role in conditions characterized by impulsivity. International Review of Psychiatry, 18(2), 99-105.
  38. Richardson, A.J. (2006). Omega-3 fatty acids in ADHD and related neurodevelopmental disorders. International Review of Psychiatry, 18(2), 155-172.
  39. Richardson, A.J., & Puri, B.K. (2000). The potential role of fatty acids in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Prostaglandins, Luekotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids, 63(1/2), 79-87.
  40. Peet, M., Laugharne, J.D.E., Mellor, J., & Ramchand, C.N. (1996). Essential fatty acid deficiency in erythrocyte membranes from chronic schizophrenic patients, and the clinical effects of dietary supplementation. Prostaglandins, Luekotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids, 55(1/2), 71-75.
  41. Terai K., Munesue, T., & Hiratani, M. (1999). Excessive water drinking behavior in autism. Brain & Development, 21, 103-106.
  42. Bell, J.G., MacKinlay, E.E., Dick, J.R., MacDonald, D.J., Boyle, R.M., & Glen, A.C.A. (2004). Essential fatty acids and phospholipase A2 in autistic spectrum disorders.  Prostaglandins, Luekotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids, 71, 201-204.
  43. Vancassel, S., Durand, G., Barthelemy, C., Lejeune, B., Martineau, J., Guilloteau, D., Andres, C., & Chalon, S. (2001). Plasma fatty acid levels in autistic children. Prostaglandins, Luekotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids, 65(1), 1-7.
  44. Young, G., & Conquer, J. Omega-3 fatty acids and neuropsychiatric disorders. Reproduction, Nutrition, and Development, 45(1), 1-28.
  45. Richardson, A.J., & Ross, M.A. (2000). Fatty acid metabolism in neurodevelopmental disorder: a new perspective on associations between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, dyslexia, dyspraxia, and the autistic spectrum. Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids, 63(1/2), 1-9.
  46. Richardson, A.J., & Puri, B.K. (2000). The potential role of fatty acids in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Prostaglandins, Luekotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids, 63(1/2), 79-87.
  47. Richardson, A.J., & Puri, B.K. (2000). The potential role of fatty acids in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Prostaglandins, Luekotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids, 63(1/2), 79-87.
  48. Johnson, S.M., & Hollander, E. (2003).  Evidence that eicosapentaenoic acid is effective in treating autism.  Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 64(7), 848-849.
  49. Amminger, G.P., Berger, G.E., Schafer, M.R., Klier, C., Friedrich, M.H., & Feucht M.  (2007).  Omega-3 fatty acids supplementation in children with autism: A double-blind randomized, placebo-controlled pilot study. Biological Psychiatry, 61, 551-553.
  50. Bell, J.G., MacKinlay, E.E., Dick, J.R., MacDonald, D.J., Boyle, R.M., & Glen, A.C.A. (2004). Essential fatty acids and phospholipase A2 in autistic spectrum disorders.  Prostaglandins, Luekotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids, 71, 201-204.

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